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During your menstrual period, your uterus contracts to help expel its lining. Hormonelike substances (prostaglandins) involved in pain and inflammation trigger the uterine muscle contractions. Higher levels of prostaglandins are associated with more-severe menstrual cramps. 

Healthy periods should cause minimal discomfort and extreme menstrual cramps should be further investigated. There are a few conditions that can cause  painful:

Endometriosis: when the lining forms outside of the uterus, for example in the fallopian tubes and can cause a more chronic pain than regular period cramps. 

Uterine fibroids which presents as non-cancerous growths on the uterus walls.

Adenomyosis, when the tissue lining the uterus begins to grow into the uterine walls.

Pelvic inflammatory disease, an infection of a woman’s reproductive organs, usually caused by bacteria transmitted through sex.

Cervical stenosis, when the opening of the cervix is smaller and restricts the flow of menstrual blood – this can cause an increase in pressure in the uterus.

Painful menstrual cramps and estrogen excess.... 

More than 50% of the metabolism of estrogens takes place in the liver, therefore targeting the liver becomes central when it comes to clearing oestrogen. The liver metabolizes hormones & other substances using two primary Phases – the Phase I and Phase II pathways. The liver will prioritise detoxing alcohol, toxins, etc before oestrogen.

Another way estrogen metabolism is accomplished is by the gastrointestinal system. Approximately 50% of the estrogen that is metabolised by the liver in then excreted in the bile and passed into the intestines - estrogens either are then either excreted in the feces (POOP) or they are re-absorbed into the portal circulation. This is why regular bowel movements are essential for oestrogen clearance.

Estrogen excess can result in PMS symptoms such as headaches, clotting, breakouts, cramping and heavy periods.

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